The U.S. auto industry is reeling from a wave of new regulations and has lost $16.2 billion in market value since the start of the year, according to new research from Bloomberg Intelligence.

The research firm, based on company filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, shows that Ford, General Motors, Volkswagen, Honda and Toyota all have gained value since January.

The new research, based off information from more than 700 companies, also showed that GM and Ford are the biggest losers in the S&P 500 index.

The latest data was provided to Bloomberg by the nonprofit Center for Responsible Investment, which tracks how stock markets value stocks.

The index is calculated using historical stock returns and compares them to historical market values.

In a separate report, Bloomberg found that Ford is losing more than $17 billion in value since it filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in July.

The company is now worth less than $18 billion.

The losses reflect a restructuring of its business, including a merger with Toyota Motor Corp. and the sale of its U.K. operations.

Ford is the first auto company to go under since General Motors went bankrupt in 2011.

The losses, including losses related to its restructuring, are not necessarily reflective of its market value, the researchers said.

Instead, they show how companies that have gone under have been able to re-emerge after being restructured and how those companies are now more valuable to investors than they were before the restructuring.

The report also found that Toyota, Honda, Hyundai and Ford have the largest losses in the index.

All three companies have seen their stock prices decline by more than 50 percent in the past year.

The S&amps Dow Jones Industrial Average is down more than 7 percent.

The S&P 500 and the Dow Jones industrial average are up 0.4 percent and 0.7 percent, respectively.

The Nikkei 225 index is up 0,4 percent.